To spin with the flyer spinning wheel, attach a leader to the empty bobbin and thread it through the flyer hooks or loops and out the front of the orifice. Image 10 shows a flyer with an adjustable loop and image 11 shows a flyer with hooks. Image 12 shows a delta orifice, a triangular loop instead of a hollow tube. If the wheel cannot be threaded with the fingers, most modern manufacturers include a threading hook. If not, use a crochet hook or bent wire. Turn the drive wheel with the treadle or treadles, pumping up and down with the foot evenly to turn the wheel at a constant speed. Draft while the wheel twists the yarn; when you relax the tension on the yarn, the flyer pulls it in and winds it on the bobbin. Do not let go of the end, but keep drafting and treadling. Stop occasionally to check the bobbin and move the yarn to the next hook (or adjust the sliding loop) to wind on evenly. Continue until the yarn is level with the bobbin whorls.
Almost all flyer spinning wheels have some means of twisting yarn faster or slower by changing the ratio of the drive wheel to the flyer or bobbin whorl. A higher ratio twists faster. Take-up tension is controlled by a brake system that retards either the flyer or bobbin. The stronger the brake tension, the more it slows and the faster the yarn winds on. There are three types of flyer systems, each with different adjustments for take-up tension. The tension decreases as the bobbin fills for the bobbin lead and flyer lead systems but not double drive.
The design of the drive wheel, treadle or treadles, bobbins, whorls and flyers varies by manufacturer, so it is not possible to give a general set of instructions for changing bobbins or whorls or the exact location of adjustment mechanisms. Adjustments for the three types of flyer systems are described below.
This item is scored with its associated yarn.
Examiner 1 commented that the description of changing the drive band for S or Z spinning on a double drive wheel was confusing. It was confusing for me too, I know how it works but not sure how to explain it. I tried to find several sources to use as examples but most were very vague. I made a point of mentioning this because I occasionally hear people get fussy about "Never treadle backwards" and the double drive system is one where you can actually do something about that. I suspect the word "anti-clockwise" is a problem here. Examiner 1 also noted that it is the flyer that slows for double drive to wind on. I didn't specifically mention this. I'll have to look at that next time I have a double drive wheel handy. I borrowed one for a few days and took notes.
Examiner 2 also noted the drive band thing, but also made some other comments I'm not clear about. "Tension does not decrease as the bobbin fills on Irish setup, but the take up changes." Yes, which is why when I'm talking about this I specifically mention "take-up tension." It does decrease as the bobbin fills, which is why Louet finally came out with fat core bobbins for their wheels and I hated my old wheel as soon as I got past absolute beginner stage. We appear to be talking about the same thing here, so I don't know why there is a misunderstanding. Examiner 2 also noted that the double drive system does not have a brake. Well, it does have to have something that functions as a brake, otherwise nothing would ever wind on. In this case it is the difference between the two pulleys, not a specific knob marked "brake." I guess I wasn't clear enough.